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Mary Gaceri - Meru University of Science and Technology, Kenya


The closure of learning institutions due to the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted not only the students but also the teachers and school leaders. In response to school closures, the use of online, e-learning and distance learning platforms have remained a key option available for the continuation of learning. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, universities around the world are taking rapid actions to ensure students learning continuity and secure the well-being of their students. The rationale was to examine the readiness, acceptance, success and challenges for online learning in universities during the pandemic. The paper established that e-learning comes with some challenges that must be addressed by universities before successful implementation can be fully realized. The paper also established that the Covid-19 pandemic has positively increase e-learning uptake in universities. Effective training is a key determinant for adopting online learning in educational institutions.

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David Maina Macharia - School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Mary Namusonge - School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya


The Small and Medium play a vital role in different economies across the globe. SME's performance is very important for the growth and development of the economy. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the role of social media on SMEs performance to highlight the knowledge gaps suitable to form a basis for future research work. Therefore, the specific objective were to review the existing conceptual and theoretical literature on the construct of social media usage and SME performance; to review the relevant empirical literature on the construct of social media usage and SME performance; and to identify emerging conceptual, theoretical, and empirical gaps from the reviewed literature. The research is anchored on three theories; namely, the social network theory, social penetration theory, and technology acceptance model. The theories shed light on the importance of social networks which can be employed in business to enhance performance. Technology–Organization–Environment (TOE) conceptual Framework guided the study. The study established that social media plays a positive role in enhancing SME's performance. The adoption of social media by SMEs is important to their performance. However, the effectiveness of using social media to enhance SMEs’ performance is dependent on the role played by the SMEs management and the government.

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Ouma Carolyne Awuor - School of Business and Economics, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

Duncan Kashu - School of Business and Economics, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

Muiruri Joseph Kamande - School of Business and Economics, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

Mutua Kilonzo - School of Business and Economics, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

Waithira Ruth - School of Business and Economics, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

Abednego Musau - Lecturer, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya


Restoration of economic wellbeing is one of the key efforts governments are undertaking in post-COVID era. This is due to the fact that, economies have experienced an increase in debt levels which affect their interactions in the world economy. Many of world economies have entered into recession and others experienced a devaluation of currencies even as debt levels skyrocket. Kenya has experienced an increase in debt levels increasing beyond the World Bank standard coupled with a decline in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) levels as multinational companies scale down investments and others exit the markets all together. The big question is therefore, is the increase in debt levels a contributor to declining FDIs? This study focused on the analysis of the effect of public debt on foreign direct investment inflows in Kenya. The main purpose of the study was to determine the Impact of public debt on Foreign Direct Investments and the specific objectives included to analyze the effect of Gross financial liabilities on Foreign Direct Investment inflows in Kenya, to determine the effect of public debt to GDP ratio on Foreign Direct Investment, to analyze Interest Rate on Foreign Direct Investment and to determine the effect of debt budgetary revenue on Foreign Direct Investments. Secondary sources of data were sourced from reports by the World Bank, IMF, UNCTAD, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, CBK, and National Treasury. Our study used the descriptive study design since we sought to elaborate the relationship between public debt and Foreign Direct Investment inflows in Kenya. Multiple regression analysis on available data found out that all the independent variables (Gross Financial Liabilities, Public Debt to GDP Ratio, Interest Rate and Debt Budgetary Revenue) were statistically insignificant. The R-Square value was 0.401 meaning that only 40.1% variation in FDI inflows in Kenya can be determined by public debt while the other part is determined by factors not covered in this research. The findings also indicated a high R of 0.633 indicating that public debt has a high correlation to FDIs. An individual analysis of each variable found out that Public Debt to GDP Ratio and Interest Rate had a positive correlation with Foreign Direct Investment while Gross Financial Liabilities and Debt Budgetary Revenue had a negative correlation. The study therefore recommends that the government should develop and execute policies to regulate the Gross Financial Liabilities in order to encourage inflows of FDI and also reduce deficit budgeting (expenditure exceeds revenue) which leads to excessive borrowing and this in turn discourages inflow of FDI.

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Verah Faridah Masolo - Student, Department of Accounting and Finance, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Festus Wanjohi - Lecturer, Department of Accounting and Finance, Kenyatta University, Kenya


With the dynamism being experienced in the business environment globally, performance is a major factor in the survival of a business entity. Businesses have adopted strategies to enhance their performance. In Kenya, the financial sector has endeavored to introduce and embrace technology in order to realize and sustain performance through credit offering. The players within the financial sectors with the role of offering credit facilities include commercial banks, microfinances, and digital lenders among others. In order to increase credit penetration and acquisition, most of these players have introduced digital credit as one of those technological interventions whose potential is to increase credit penetration and acquisition within the market. With this technological advancement, there has been mixed reactions and outcomes with different consequences to commercial banks performance. The research intention was to determine the impact of digital credit on banking financial performance, with a focus on Kenyan commercial banks. The specific objective was to determine the impact of mobile network based loans, website based loans and app based loans on the financial performance of selected commercial banks and to investigate the moderating role of bank size on the association between digital credit and financial performance. This research was based on financial intermediation theory, which was supported by finance growth theory and information asymmetry theory. The theory of positivism was used, as well as longitudinal and explanatory non–experimental study designs. The study's target population was 10 of Kenya's 38 commercial banks that had adopted from 2012 their own digital credit solutions. The sample size was the 5 largest banks in relation to digitization. Secondary data for this research was gathered from Kenyan commercial banks' financial statements, the Kenyan Central Bank, as well as reports of economic assessment report. Descriptive statistics and panel multiple regression analysis were used in analyzing the results. The correlation results revealed a positive and significant relationship between the independent variables mobile network operator based loans website based loans and app based loans was positive and significant. The regression analysis also revealed a positive significant relationship between mobile network operator based loans and website based loans and financial performance while app based loans did not have a significant relationship. Ban size was however found to negatively and insignificantly moderate the relationship between digital credit and financial performance. The study recommended commercial banks to come up with strategies that will see an increased use of mobile network operator loans and website based loans. More so the central bank was recommended to formulate polices that will help commercial bans realize the benefits of digital credit and an improved financial performance.

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Zamzam Mohamed Ali - Business Administration Department, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Dr Peter Philip Wambua - Business Administration Department, Kenyatta University, Kenya


Performance of an organization includes analysis of company performance in reference to its goals and objectives. The essential components of organizational performance are dependent on clear vision statement and how the management is able to charismatically involve all stakeholders in its application. Dynamic capabilities are significant for a business enterprises to attain competitive edge that is sustainable and make sure that the performance of the company is superior. The main purpose was to ascertain the influence of dynamic capabilities and performance of commercial banks in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to establish the influence of innovative capability, technical, and learning culture capability on performance of selected commercial banks. Theories used are; dynamic capability’s theory, balanced score card theory, resource-based view theory and frim learning theory. To achieve this objective, descriptive survey was adopted. Targeted population was 3 commercial banks that are located in Nairobi County. Target population composed of 236 management level employees of the selected banks.  Selected sample was 149 respondents. In order to get the required sample size, stratified random sampling technique was utilized. Data collection was use of questionnaires which was administered individually to each respondent. Pretesting of questionnaire was done to ensure reliability and validity. SPSS (version, 23) was utilized to analyse the collected data. Quantitative data collected was scrutinized by use of descriptive statistics and demonstration of findings was in tables and figures. Multiple regressions were computed to find out the influence of dynamic capabilities on performance. It was found that the association of innovations capability and performance commercial banks is significantly positive; Technical capability and performance is significantly positive; link between learning culture capability and performance is significantly positive. The study therefore suggests management of the bank to embrace various forms of innovations including, product, service, market, and process innovations. It is also suggested that banks take a more proactive approach to producing products and services that add value to their clients. Banks must also empower their frontline executives to become more customer-centric, as this provides an opportunity for customers to provide input into innovative decision-making. Bank should improve its technical knowledge capacity through knowledge management, talents and skills acquisition, knowledge creation, knowledge gathering, knowledge diffusion and knowledge use. The study also recommends the need for policy intervention to improve operators knowledge and skills. Bank should embrace practices that improve customer service and satisfaction such as reduced costs, multiple products provisions, high levels of customer support, and effective employees.

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